Rubella is usually considered a childhood disease, but there are times when adults are ill. Are you familiar with the symptoms of rubella in adults?
Rubella – what is this disease?
Rubella is a viral disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets. The greatest chance of contracting rubella in the autumn and spring periods when immunity is weakened. This applies especially to those people who do not have immunity to viruses of this disease and people with weakened immunity – children and pregnant women. The carrier and distributor of the rubella virus is only a sick person during the incubation period, that is, the first 5-7 days from the onset of the disease. The name of the disease ” rubella ” was due to one of its symptoms – a red skin rash. The course of the disease in an adult is heavier than in children and even leads to serious complications. Therefore, when the first signs appear, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Symptoms of rubella in adults
After infection, the symptoms of the disease do not appear immediately, approximately on 5 day.
what are the symptoms accompanying rubella in adults:
1. Red rash .
The first symptom is a red rash. Moreover, the rash in an adult is different from the child in that the rash merges with each other, forming large spots. The rash appears first in the form of small pink spots behind the ears and on the nose, then the rash goes to the arms and torso, dropping to the lower part of the body. Rash hold for 5-7 days.
2. Fever .
Before a rash appears or fever appears with the rash. There are periods when the temperature reaches 40 degrees Celsius. And in an adult this temperature is very difficult tobring down.
3. Swollen lymph nodes .
On the second day of the course of the disease as a result of inflammatory processes, an increase in lymph nodes occurs. Lymph nodes can grow in no particular order: now in the armpit, now in the groin, then at the same time in all places.
5. Headache .
Headaches have a long non-passing character. No drugs for migraine with rubella does not help.
6. Lack of appetite .
A sick person experiences anorexia, accompanied by nausea. This symptom is manifested due to intoxication of the body as a result of high body temperature and toxic products of the rubella virus.
7. Muscle and joint pain .
With rubella, regardless of temperature, a person experiences muscle and joint pain. It is very similar to the sensations of colds and flu.
8. Symptoms of colds .
With rubella, an adult may develop symptoms of colds, such as: a runny nose, sore throat, and even a sore throat, cough. Sometimes these symptoms appear before the rash appears, and then rubella is easily confused with acute respiratory diseases. But when using drugs that are usually prescribed for ARVI and flu, the symptoms do not go away. This is due to the fact that antivirals for colds do not affect rubella viruses.
9. Photophobia .
Often, a person with a rubella in bright light will have unpleasant sensations that are accompanied by lachrymation.
10. Conjunctivitis .
Sometimes conjunctivitis occurs with photophobia. It develops for 2-3 days from the onset of the disease at night. Having woken up in the morning, the person with great difficulty opens the eyes which are stuck together from pus. Some of these symptoms are similar to the symptoms of a cold, until a rash appears. Therefore, it is not necessary to engage in self-treatment, and even at the first signs of a cold, you should consult a doctor to prevent serious complications.
One patient called the doctor at home due to high fever and a red itchy rash covering her entire body and especially her back. In addition to the rash and fever, the patient complained of a severe headache, which did not stop, and a runny nose and watery eyes. Her whole body ached. All the symptoms indicated a cold, so the woman was treated on her own before the appearance of the rash and the doctor’s visit with antiviral drugs and paracetamol to reduce body temperature.
After examining the patient, the doctor established a diagnosis of rubella, which was confirmed by a serological test to determine the level of specific antibodies. After that, the patient was given treatment recommendations.
Possible complications of the disease
Like many infectious diseases, rubella has an incubation period that lasts about 10-24 days. If during this period does not seek medical help, the spread of the virus in the body will cause serious damage.
The most dangerous complication is inflammation of the meninges – encephalitis. Another unpleasant complication of rubella is joint disease (arthritis). If a person has poor immunity, the rubella virus contributes to the development of otitis (ear inflammation) and pneumonia (pneumonia).
The cause of these complications is a bacterial infection with which the body can not cope. The most dangerous complication of rubella is intrauterine lesion of the fetus. If a woman becomes infected in the first trimester of pregnancy, the virus will cause serious pathologies of fetal development and congenital deformity.
In such cases, doctors recommend an abortion. The rubella virus easily crosses the placental barrier and infects the fetus. It provokes the development of congenital heart disease, brain underdevelopment, damage to the liver and lungs, becomes the cause of deafness, cataracts and other fetal malformations.
The longer the gestation period, the lower the percentage of fetal infection with the virus. So, at 1 month of pregnancy this risk is 60%, at the beginning of the third trimester – 15%, at 5 months – only 7%. But in each case, doctors individually approach the issue of termination of pregnancy.
Treatment of rubella in adults
The rubella symptoms are very similar to other infectious diseases. Therefore, to confirm the diagnosis, the patient is examined. Rubella is detected by serological testing for the level of specific antibodies. Rubella treatment is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of the disease.
There is no special medicine to combat this virus. After suffering the disease, a person remains immune to rubella viruses for life. If the course of the disease is not complicated, then the patient is treated at home.
Bed rest and heavy drinking are prescribed, and when photophobia is recommended to darken the room. Drugs are prescribed to relieve unpleasant symptoms and immunostimulants. In the presence of itching, a special ointment (dicentinden) is prescribed.
If there are complications, then drugs are also prescribed, a direction to combat their development. In severe cases, the patient is hospitalized.
Rubella prevention is vaccination. Mandatory vaccination is given to a child at 12-15 months, again – at 6 years.
Immunity against the rubella virus persists for 20 years. After this period, re-vaccination is recommended. This is especially true of women planning a pregnancy. If one of the family members is sick, you must put him in a separate room and air the room more often. Pregnant women in this case can not be contacted with the patient for three weeks.
If there was contacting, then a pregnant woman is given a serological analysis to detect the disease every 10–20 days. Rubella vaccine can be done at any clinic. In the family of one pregnant woman for a period of 4 months, an 8-year-old son fell ill with rubella. Since the woman was vaccinated during the planning period of pregnancy, she did not get infected after contact with her sick son. As a precaution, she moved to live with her parents for three weeks.
But in order to make sure that the rubella virus did not enter her body, the woman went to the doctor. She was recommended to pass the analysis on the level of specific antibodies several times with an interval of 10 days.
The results of analyzes of a pregnant woman showed that the level of specific antibodies to the rubella virus remained at the same level throughout the entire study period. The same analysis confirmed that the woman has immunity to the rubella virus, which did not give the viruses that entered her body to multiply and have any adverse effect on the child.